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The origin of the sand from beaches The sand beach has many origins. Usually comes in the continents, the wear of materials provided by rivers. In the volcanic islands in the Canary Islands for example see why beautiful beaches of black sand. Among the sand can see small fragments of shells that are crushed by the aggressive action of the waves, especially during storms. But there is an important source of sand produced by some fish, parrot fish and the beautiful, that 'eat' literally bites the coral to expel their remains turned into fine sand. This erosion of biological enables them to feed on algae that live inside coral limestone wall. A single parrotfish can produce one ton of sand per year

Where do they get the oxygen the fish? Like any animal, fish need oxygen to live. One might think that as water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen, could get her out of her. There are ways to do it, like electrolysis, but it takes a lot of energy to carry it out, and there is no biological process that is able to obtain it directly from the water. But sea water can also dissolve atmospheric gases, in addition to minerals and other nutrients. The waves, wind and breakers mix air with water, and therefore the water reaches up to 10 milliliters of dissolved oxygen in each liter of water. This is the maximum amount that water is able to absorb oxygen, and a sponge also has a ceiling above which is not able to collect more fluid

The phytoplankton also returns oxygen dissolved in water as a byproduct of their chemical reactions with the chlorophyll necessary for their own growth. Ultimately these microscopic plants take CO2 from the atmosphere (the famous gas that produces the greenhouse effect and we pass us by breathing or results from any type of combustion) and water and solar energy, are able to synthesize sugars with growing also release oxygen to the seawater, to benefit fish and our atmosphere. For it to be carried out this fantastic transformation algae need like land plants, the chlorophyll that gives the green its microscopic cells and thus the water where they grow and develop. The colder the water the more oxygen can dissolve and cold currents come as nutrient-loaded sea bed are very nutritious for the phytoplankton, it is understood that these currents are perfect for fish that are in it more oxygen and nourishment.

To accommodate this oxygen, fish gills are using something like our alveoli, ie tissues with many very fine capillaries through which blood circulates. The total area of these capillaries would be extended if over 60 times the size of the fish. The oxygen of the water in contact with these fine capillaries, not more than 3 microns thick, penetrating them through a process of osmosis, while CO2 is removed by dissolving in water. With this process the fish are able to extract up to 80% of dissolved oxygen.

The survivability of fish Sharks are heavier than water and a dead one will go to the bottom instead of floating between two stools. To fix this, the shark does like airplanes, helping with their pectoral fins as a wing to create a force that sustains him. This technique requires them to swim without rest because if they stop, fall to the bottom.

Other fish are also heavier than water, but more evolved than the shark. No need to swim to stay afloat and make it as divers adjust their buoyancy by filling a chamber with air drawn from their circulatory system, to make just and necessary buoyancy to be weightless. This air pocket can swim llamadavejiga volume change and adjust to their buoyancy will remain without swimming to keep from falling to the bottom Fish are also more evolved than the shark in other ways as its respiratory system. The shark needs to swim continuously to the flow of water generated passes through their gills and so they can breathe.Fish can do the same or pumping water to his mouth to expel the gills without having to swim. But I have seen such as sharks rest and rely on funds shallow at night to sleep, you probably need very little oxygen or simply a circulating water flow is sufficient for them to breathe during those moments. The water color It is clear that water is completely transparent and colorless (and also tasteless!). This is pure distilled water of course! But sea water has innumerable dissolved salts and suspended elements. Microscopic organisms living in it and not so microscopic. The water also reflects the different shades of funds, its rocks and close environment of the coast. If there is enough depth, it acquires a characteristic color of each zone. In northern latitudes usually a very dark shade of blue or deep green due to the presence of chlorophyll Phytoplancton with its greenish hue that gives the ocean.

In the tropical islands we will see very clean water with stunning shades of blue turquoise.